The 19th Annual Report of the Performance of State Highway Systems (1984-2008/9) is now available. The report tracks the performance of state-owned roads of the United States from 1984 to 2008, with some recent information (fatalities, bridge condition and travel) for 2009. Eleven indicators make up each state's overall rating and cover highway expenditures, pavement and bridge condition, urban congestion, fatality rates and narrow lanes.
The study is based on spending and performance data submitted to the federal government by state highway agencies. Here's a link if you want to read the report.